Joints of the Upper Limb: Anatomy,Movement & Ligament involvement

Upper Limb Joints are-joints of the upper limb

Acromioclavicular joint

Articulation- within the distal end of the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula.

Characteristics of the joints-a plane variety of synovial joint; the shape of the articulation encourages the acromion to slide inferior to the clavicle during shoulder dislocation a condition that happens during the coracoclavicular ligament is torn.

Coracoclavicular joint

Articulation- within the coracoid process of the scapula and the inferior surface of the lateral portion of the clavicle.

Characteristics of the joints- a type of syndesmosis joints; this joint provides durability to the acromioclavicular joint.

Sternoclavicular joint

Articulation-within the clavicle with the sternum.

Characteristics of the joints-a synovial joint; its joint capsule is subdivided by a fibrous articular disc; it is strengthened by the interclavicular, sternoclavicular and costoclavicular ligaments; the sternoclavicular joint has the range of movement, but not the form, of a ball and socket joint.

Shoulder joint

Articulation-within the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial ball and socket joint; the glenoid labrum deepens the socket; glenohumeral ligaments reinforce the joint capsule anteriorly; the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle passes through the shoulder joint cavity; the shoulder joint is supported by the muscles of the rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis); the joint is also known as the glenohumeral joint; it is frequently dislocated.

Radioulnar joint, distal

Articulation-within the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial pivot joint; this joint has a fibrocartilaginous articular disk that connects to the styloid process of the ulna and the medial side of the distal radius.

Radioulnar joint, proximal

Articulation-within the radius and ulna that is contained within the capsule of the elbow joint.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial pivot joint; it is the articulation within the head of the radius and the radial notch of the ulna which is completed by the annular ligament.

Elbow joint

Articulation- within the distal humerus and the proximal radius and ulna.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial hinge joint; the elbow joint is a complex joint consisting of humeroradial, humeroulnar and proximal radioulnar articulations all within an articular capsule; it is strengthened by the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments.

Wrist joint

Articulation- within the distal end of the radius and the proximal row of carpal bones.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial ellipsoid joint; two primary degrees of motion is permitted: abduction/adduction and flexion/extension - these motions are combined to create circumduction; the radius actually articulates with the articular disk which in turn articulates among the proximal row of carpal bones (lunate, scaphoid and triquetrum).

Radiocarpal (wrist) joint

Articulation-radius articulates among the proximal row of carpals,

Characteristics of the joints- synovial, ellipsoidal.

Carpometacarpal joint, finger

Articulation- within the distal carpal bones and the proximal ends of the metacarpal bones of the hand.

Characteristics of the joints- a plane variety of synovial joint; limited motion is permitted at the carpometacarpal joint; the carpometacarpal joint is reinforced by dorsal and palmar ligaments.

Carpometacarpal joint, thumb

Articulation-within the trapezium and the proximal end of the metacarpal bone of the thumb.

Characteristics of the joints-a synovial saddle joint, this articulation permits two planes of motion: abduction/adduction and flexion/extension which may be combined to produce circumduction.

Intermetacarpal joint-

Articulation-within the adjacent sides of the proximal ends of metacarpal bones 2-5.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial plane joint; limited motion is possible between at the carpometacarpal joints or in adjacent metacarpal bones.

Interphalangeal joints

Articulation-within the proximal and middle phalanges.

Characteristics of the joints- proximal interphalangeal joint, abbreviated PIP  the middle and distal phalanges (distal interphalangeal joint, abbreviated DIP)a synovial hinge joint; these joints are strengthened by medial and lateral collateral ligaments.

Metacarpophalangeal joint

Articulation-within the head of a metacarpal and the base of a proximal phalanx.

Characteristics of the joints- a synovial condyloid (or ellipsoid) joint; it is strengthened by medial and lateral collateral ligaments; the joint has two planes of motion: flexion/extension and abduction/adduction which motion may be combined to circumduction.

Mid carpal joint

Articulation-within the proximal and distal rows of carpal bones.

Characteristics of the joints- a series of synovial plane joints; small ranges of motion are permitted between carpal bones which take on an additive result because there are several articulations in a proximodistal row (wrist, mid-carpal, and carpometacarpal joints); the mid carpal and intercarpal joints are reinforced by numerous ligaments.