Retinal Detachment:Types,Causes,Symptoms & Treatment
The retina is the light-sensitive layer of the tissue that lines the inside of the eye and sends visual communications within the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal detachment reports an emergency circumstance in which a thin layer of tissue (the retina) at the back of the eye pulls away from its normal position.
In about 7% of incidents, both eyes are affected.If the longer retinal detachment goes untreated, the higher risk of permanent vision loss in the affected eye.
Types of Retinal Detachment
There are three types of retinal detachment-
Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment —A tear or break in the retina provides fluid to get under the retina and separate it from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), these types of retinal detachments are the most frequent.
Tractional Retinal Detachment—In this type of retinal detachment, scar tissue on the retina’s surface contracts and creates the retina to separate from the RPE.
Exudative Retinal Detachment—If frequently retinal diseases, including inflammatory disorders and injury to the eye, it happened. In this type, fluid leaks within the region beneath the retina, but there are no tears in the retina.
Symptoms of Retinal Detachment
Retinal detachment itself is painless.A detached retina doesn't hurt.But alarm signs almost always appear before it occurs or has advanced. But you might notice:
•Flashes of light
•Gradually reduced side (peripheral) vision
•Seeing lots of new "floaters"
Another manifestation is the presence of a curtain over the range of vision.
Causes and Risk Factors of Retinal Detachment
A retinal detachment can occur at any age, although it is more common in people over age 40.
A retinal detachment is also may occur in -
•Are extremely nearsighted
•Have a family history of retinal detachment
•Have had a retinal detachment in the other eye
•Have had an eye injury
•Have had cataract surgery
•Have other eye diseases such as retinoschisis, uveitis, degenerative myopia
Diagnosis of Retinal Detachment
As part of an eye exam. The eye specialist will give you eye drops that widen your pupil.
Retinal examination-The ophthalmoscope provides a profoundly detailed view, allowing the surgeon to see any retinal holes, tears or detachments.
Ultrasound imaging- If it difficult to see your retina then ultrasound imaging is done.
Treatment of Retinal Detachment
Small holes and tears are treated with laser surgery or a freeze treatment known as cryopexy. Through laser surgery, tiny burns are made around the hole to “weld” the retina back into place. Cryopexy freezes the area around the hole and assists reattach the retina.These methods are normally performed in the doctor’s office.
Retinal detachments are treated with surgery(Scleral buckle surgery) that may need the patient to stay in the hospital. In some instances, a scleral buckle, a tiny synthetic band, is connected to the outside of the eyeball to gently thrust the wall of the eye against the detached retina. If necessary, a vitrectomy may also be performed.
With modern treatment, over 90 percent of those with a retinal detachment can be favorably managed, although sometimes a second treatment is needed.