Parkinson’s Disease? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Drugs

Parkinson’s Disease:

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative cause of parkinsonism, a clinical syndrome characterized by lesions in the basal ganglia, predominantly in the substantia nigra. Clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.

Causes of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is idiopathic (no specific known cause). Other causes of parkinsonism (secondary parkinsonism) including:

Medications that can cause the development of Parkinsonism include:

  • Metoclopramide
  • Antipsychotics
  • Reserpine
  • Some calcium channel blockers
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine

Usually, after stopping those medications Parkinsonism gradually disappears over weeks to months.

  • Repeated head trauma, such as in boxing
  • Certain neurodegenerative disorders, eg. multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy
  • Exposure to toxins, eg. carbon monoxide, cyanide and organic solvents
  • Certain brain lesions, such as tumor
  • Metabolic and other disorders, eg. chronic liver failure and hypoparathyroidism

 

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Symptoms of Parkinson's

Parkinson's SymptomsA tremor that occurs in one hand while muscles are relaxed (resting tremor)

  • Stiff muscles
  • Slowness of movements
  • Difficulty in maintaining balance and walking

Some symptoms may designate the cause is not Parkinson disease. They include-Prominent memory loss that occurs during the first year of the disorder (designating dementia). Symptoms of parkinsonism on only one side of the body (often due to certain encephalon tumors or corticobasal ganglionic degeneration). Low blood pressure, arduousness swallowing, constipation, and urinary quandaries (sometimes its due to multiple system atrophy).

Diagnosis of Parkinsonism

Doctors ask about previous disorders, exposure to toxins, and use of drugs that could cause parkinsonism.

Brain imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be done to look for a structural disorder that may be causing the symptoms.

If the diagnosis is unclear, doctors may give the person levodopa ( the specialist about the drug that used to treat Parkinson) to rule out Parkinson disease. If drug results clear in improvement, Parkinson disease is the likely cause.

Treatment  for Parkinson's

Medication-

Drug treatment for Parkinson's is prescribed to suit the individual. Each person will react to their medication in different ways.

Every person with Parkinson's has a different experience of the condition. Your specialist will aim to treatment that is best for you as an individual.

These are the main types of drugs that are used to treat Parkinson's:

  • Levodopa
  • Dopamine agonists
  • COMT inhibitors
  • MAO-B inhibitors
  • Glutamate antagonist
  • Apomorphine
  • Anticholinergics

We advise you to the specialist about your individual healthcare.

Medication Side Effects-

Many people with Parkinson's  experience side effects of incipient medications are integrated or doses of subsisting medications are incremented - that are dyskinesia, wearing-off, sleep attack, drowsiness, hallucinations and impulse control disorders.

Physical Therapy-

Physical therapy includes exercise and manipulation of the body.The aim of physiotherapist for Parkinson’s

  • Maximize independence and functional potential
  • Minimize secondary complications.

Exercise can improve joint and muscle function, availing people stand, balance, ambulate and climb stairs. Techniques include-

  • Range of Kineticism Exercises

The range of kineticism(motion) commonly becomes restricted after a stroke or protracted(prolonged) bed rest. The restricted range can cause pain, interfere with a person's daily activities function, and increment the risk of skin being worn away (skin-breakdown) and pressure sores. The range of kineticism typically decreases as people age, this decrease does not customarily prevent healthy older people from being able to care for themselves.

  • Increasing the Shoulder's Range of Motion

The physical therapist evaluates the range of kineticism(motion) with an instrument called a goniometer, which quantifications largest angle of a joint can move through. The therapist additionally determines whether restricted kineticism results from tight muscles or tight ligaments and tendons. If tight muscles are the cause, a joint may be stretched vigorously. If tight ligaments or tendons are the cause, gentle stretching is needed. Stretching is conventionally most effective and least painful when tissues are warmed up and therapists may apply heat first.

There Are Three Types Of Range Of Motion Exercises-

Active Exercise:

This type of exercise is for people who can exercise their limbs without help.

Active-Assistive exercise:

This type of exercise is for people who move their limb muscles with a little help. The patient moves their limbs themselves, but a physical therapist helps them do so, by therapist's hand or with thera bands or other equipment.

Passive exercise:

This type is for who cannot active participate in an exercise.

Strengthening Exercises for Muscle:

Strengthening ExercisesMany exercises increase muscle strength. All strengthening exercises are progressively increased resistance.
If a muscle is very weak, kineticism(movement ) against gravity alone is adequate. If increase muscle strength, resistance is gradually incremented by using bands or weights. In this way, the size of muscle(mass) and strength are incremented, and increase endurance  improves.

Co-ordination and Balance Exercises-

Balance ExercisesThese exercises help the people who have problem coordination and balance, conventionally because of brain damage. Coordination exercises help to people do specific tasks. The exercises involve reiterating a meaningful movement that works more than one joint and muscle, such as picking up an object or physically contacting a body part.

Balance exercises are initially done in parallel bars, where therapist in standing position right behind the person. The person shifts weight in between right and left legs in a swaying kineticism(motion).when this exercise can be done safely, weight can be shifted backward and forward. Once these exercises are performed correctly, then the person can do that without parallel bars.