Osteoporosis :Symptoms,Cause,Risk factor,Diagnosis,Treatment & Prevention

Osteoporosis:

Osteoporosis a bone disease that occurs when the body loses an inordinate amount of bone makes little bone or both. As a result, bones become impotent and may break from a fall or, in solemn cases, from sneezing or minor bumps.

Osteoporosis denotes “porous bone.” Viewed under a microscope, healthy bone looks homogeneous to a honeycomb. In the case of osteoporosis, the spaces in the honeycomb are much more astronomically immense than healthy bone. Osteoporotic bones lost density or mass and contain eccentric(abnormal) tissue structure. Because of less dense, are more liable to break.

More about 54 million Americans have osteoporosis. Studies suggest that approximately one in four men and one in two women up to age 50 and older will break a bone due to osteoporosis.

osteoporosis-stages

Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis a "silent disease" because the bone is lost with no designations. You may no symptom osteoporosis until a  bump, strain, or fall causes a bone break.

Causes of osteoporosis

Losing bone a normal part of aging process, but some people lose bone density much more expeditious than normal. This can lead osteoporosis and the higher risk of fractures.

Women lose bone rapidly first few years after the menopause. Women are more in peril of osteoporosis than men, categorically if the menopause commences early (before age of 45).

Many other factors can increase the peril of developing osteoporosis, including:

  • Long-term & high-dose of oral corticosteroids
  • Other medical conditions – Like inflammatory conditions, hormone-cognate conditions, or malabsorption
  • Familial history of osteoporosis – categorically history of hip fracture in parent
  • long-term utilization of certain medications which can affect bone or hormone levels
  • Low body mass index (BMI)
  • Alcohol and smoking

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Diagnosing osteoporosis

DEXA (DXA) scan can quantify your bone mineral density(BMD).DEXA scan a short, painless procedure that takes near about five minutes, depends on the component of a body being scanned.

Bone mineral density can compare to the bone mineral density of an adult and someone who have same age and sex of you. The difference calculated by a standard deviation (SD) and called a T-score.

Standard deviation is a quantification of variability predicated on an average or expected value.

Above -1 SD is normal

Between -1 and -2.5 SD is defined as decremented bone mineral density compared with peak bone mass

Below -2.5 SD is osteoporosis

Osteopenia

If you diagnosed with osteopenia(bone density tests show you have decremented bone density) but not enough to be classed as osteoporosis.

Your physicians may recommend some of the treatments, depending on your symptom and risk of fracture.

Treating osteoporosis

Treatment for osteoporosis is predicated on treating and averting fractures, and medication for strengthening bones.

Bisphosphonates are the most prevalent medications prescribed for osteoporosis treatment.

  • Risedronate (Actonel)
  • Alendronate (Fosamax)
  • Zoledronic acid (Reclast)
  • Ibandronate (Boniva)

Estrogen, and some hormone-like medications approved for averting and treating osteoporosis, Raloxifene (Evista), play a role in osteoporosis treatment. Some women use estrogen replacement therapy, that may increase the heart attacks and some types of cancer.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Nutrition

A healthy diet with high in calcium and vitamin D avails make your bones healthy.Good sources of calcium include:

  • Low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese
  • Foods with integrated calcium such as orange juice, cereals, and loaves of bread.
  • Vitamin D is needed for healthy bones. Some people need to take vitamin D pills.

Exercise

Exercise avails your bones healthier. you can:

  • Walk
  • Swimming
  • Jog
  • Play tennis
  • Climb stairs
  • Weight-bearing exercise
  • Dance.

Healthy Lifestyle

Smoking is lamentable(bad) for bones as well as the heart and lungs. Additionally, people who drink alcohol are more prone to bone loss and broken bones.