Multiple Sclerosis (MS) : Symptom, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prognosis
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a clinical condition which can affect the encephalon(brain) and/or spinal cord, causing a wide range of potential symptoms, including vision, arm or leg movement, and sensation or balance problem.
Multiple sclerosis a lifelong condition that can sometimes cause severe disability, although it may occasionally be mild. In many cases, it’s possible to treat symptoms. Average life expectancy is scarcely reduced for people with MS.
Multiple sclerosis is most commonly diagnosed in people in their 20s and 30s, but it can develop at any age. Multiple sclerosis is about two to three times more mundane in women than men.
Symptoms of MS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) symptom is varied widely from person to person and may affect any part of the body.
Main symptoms include:
- Difficulty walking
- Muscle stiffness and spasms
- Problems with balance and coordination
- Problems controlling the bladder
- Pain or tingling in some parts of the body
- Dizziness and Vertigo - people with MS commonly experience dizziness
- Head movements may cause electric-shock-like sensations.
- Vision problems, such as blurred vision
- Numbness or tingling in different parts of the body
- Problems with learning, thinking, and planning
- Respiratory or breathing problems
- Hearing loss
- Sexual Dysfunction - loss of interest in sex is common for males and females with multiple sclerosis.
Depending on the type of Multiple sclerosis (MS) you have, your symptoms may come and go in phases, or get steadily worse over time (progress).
The early symptoms of Multiple sclerosis (MS) often have many other causes, so they're not necessarily a sign of Multiple sclerosis (MS). Let your physicians know about the specific pattern of symptoms that you’re experiencing.
If you physicians thinks you could have MS, you'll be referred to a neurologist, who may suggest tests as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to check for features of Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Types of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Four disease courses are identified in multiple sclerosis:
- Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS),
- Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS),
- Primary progressive MS (PPMS),
- Secondary progressive MS (SPMS).
Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)-
CIS is the first episode of neurologic symptoms caused by inflammation and demyelination in central nervous system. The episode, which by definition must last for at least 24 hours, is characteristic of multiple sclerosis but does not yet meet the criteria for a diagnosis of Multiple sclerosis (MS) because people who experience a CIS may or may not go on to develop MS.
Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)-
The most common disease course – is characterized by limpidly defined attacks of new or incrementing neurologic symptoms. These attacks – additionally called relapses or exacerbations – are followed by periods of partial or complete recovery. During remissions, all symptoms may vanish, or some symptoms may continue and become permanent. However, there is no ostensible progression of the disease during the periods of remission. At different points in time, RRMS may be further characterized as either active (new MRI activity) or not active, as well as be worsening or not worsen.
Approximately 85 percent of people with Multiple sclerosis (MS) are initially diagnosed with RRMS.
Primary progressive MS (PPMS)-
PPMS is characterized by worsening neurological function such as disability from the onset of symptoms, without early relapses or remissions. PPMS may be further characterized at different points in time as either active (new MRI activity) or not active, as well as with progression or without progression.
Approximately 15 percent of people with Multiple sclerosis (MS) are diagnosed with PPMS.
Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)-
Secondary progressive MS follows an initial relapsing-remitting course. Most people who are diagnosed with Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) will eventually transition to the secondary progressive course in which there is a progressive worsening of neurologic function over time. SPMS may be further characterized at different points in time as either active (new MRI activity) or not active, as well as with progression or without progression.
Causes of Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune condition. This occurs when something goes wrong with the immune system and it mistakenly attacks a healthy part of the body.In this case, the brain or spinal cord of the nervous system.
In Multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the layer that circumvents and protect the nerves, called the myelin sheath. This damages and scars the sheath, and potentially the underlying nerves, designating that messages traveling along the nerves become slowed or disrupted.
Precisely what causes the immune system to act in this way is obscure, but most experts think a combination of genetic and environmental factors is involved.
Diagnosis of MS
Multiple sclerosis is often developing gradually, and the symptoms may not appear right away. Upon initial symptoms, a person’s family physicians will refer him or her to a neurologist, who may conduct a full medical history and a neurological examination to assess things like eye kineticism(movement), muscular strength and coordination. To reach a corroborated diagnosis of Multiple sclerosis, the neurologist may do some tests, including a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan which probes for tissue damage in the encephalon(brain).
The severity of Multiple sclerosis, progression and concrete symptoms cannot be predicted at the time of diagnosis.
Treatments for Multiple sclerosis
There's currently no cure for Multiple sclerosis, but a number of treatments may help to control the condition.
The treatment you require will depend on the categorical symptoms and difficulties you have. It may include:
Treating relapses with short courses of steroid to speed up recovery
Categorical treatments for individual Multiple sclerosis symptoms
Treatment to reduce the number of relapses with medication called disease-modifying drug
Disease-modifying therapies may additionally avail to slow or reduce the overall worsening of disability of Multiple sclerosis in people with relapsing-remitting Multiple sclerosis, and people with secondary progressive Multiple sclerosis who are still having relapses.
Infelicitously, there's currently no treatment that can slow the progress of primary progressive Multiple sclerosis or secondary progressive Multiple sclerosis in the absence of relapses. Many therapies aiming to treat progressive Multiple sclerosis are currently being researched.
Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis can be a challenging condition to live with, but incipient(new) treatments over the past 20 years have considerably amended the quality of life of people with the condition.
Multiple sclerosis itself is rarely fatal, but complications may arise from rigorous MS, such as chest or bladder infections, or swallowing difficulties.
The average life expectancy for people with Multiple sclerosis is around 5 to 10 years lower than average, and this gap appears to be getting more minute all the time.