Metabolic Syndrome:Causes,Symptoms,Diagnosis & Treatment

Metabolic Syndrome:

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders. Metabolic syndrome is at least three of the five following medical conditions-

  • Abdominal obesity (Waist circumference of greater than 40 inches in men, and greater than 35 inches in women)
  • High blood pressure of 130/85 or more.
  • Fasting glucose of 100 mg/dL or greater
  • High serum triglycerides-150 mg/dl or above.
  • low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels- 40mg/dl or lower in men and 50mg/dl or lower in women.

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Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. While a patient manifests with these conditions together, the possibilities for future cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes is greater than any one factor presenting alone.

Causes & Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to overweight or obesity and inactivity.The set of risk factors for metabolic syndrome generally include-

  • Obesity - Carrying too much weight, generally in the abdominal region.
  • Age-Your risk of metabolic syndrome increases with age.
  • Insulin resistance - this indicates that the body cannot properly use blood sugar or insulin.
  • Pro-inflammatory state - higher values of C-reactive protein in the blood.
  • Diabetes- During pregnancy (gestational diabetes) or if you have a family history of type 2 diabetes.
  • Prothrombotic state - higher values of fibrinogen or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 present in the bloodstream.
  • Atherogenic Dyslipidemia - High levels of ‘bad' cholesterol and low levels of ‘good’ cholesterol
  • Higher blood pressure
  • Eating an excessively high carbohydrate diet
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Psychiatric illnesses

Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome may be diagnosed if you have three or more of the following symptoms:

  • Waist circumference of greater than 40 inches in men, and greater than 35 inches in women
  • Tiredness - particularly after meals
  • Acanthosis nigricans - browning (hyperpigmentation) of folds of skin such as on the neck, armpits, groin and between the buttocks
  • High blood pressure that's consistently 140/90mmHg or higher
  • Resistance to insulin(an inability to control blood sugar levels)

Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosing

Your physician will require performing several different tests. Your physician may check one or more of the following-

  • Waist circumference
  • Blood pressure
  • Cholesterol levels
  • Fasting blood triglycerides
  • Fasting glucose level

Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

If you are diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, the aim of strategy will be to diminish the risk of developing additional health complications. Your physician will suggest –

  • Losing weight
  • Alcohol-Cutting down on alcohol
  • Being physically active- Doctors recommend getting 30 or more minutes of moderate-intensity exercises, such as brisk walking, daily.
  • Stopping smoking
  • Eating healthily – to keep your blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels under control
  • Managing stress- Meditation, yoga and other programs can help you handle stress.

 

Medicines

Sometimes lifestyle modifications aren’t sufficient to control your risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Physicians usually prescribe statins for people who have:

  • Heart disease or had a prior stroke
  • Diabetes
  • High LDL cholesterol levels

Your physician also may prescribe other medications to:

  • Reduce the chance of having a heart attack.
  • Lessen your blood pressure.
  • Prevent blood clots.

Complications of Metabolic Syndrome

The complications of metabolic syndrome are frequently serious and chronic. They include: