Hyperglycemia:Causes,Symptoms,Treatment & Complication

Hyperglycemia:

Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a condition in which an excessive quantity of glucose disseminates in the blood plasma. This is usually a blood sugar level greater than 11.1 mmol/l. Hyperglycemia doesn’t cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly raised, symptoms may not start to become remarkable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l.  However, some people who’ve had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite raised blood sugars.High blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, can cause major health complications in people with diabetes over time.

Hyperglycemia-high blood sugar

Hyperglycemia, according to World Health Organisation(WHO) as:

  • Blood glucose levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) 2 hours after meals
  • Blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) when fasting

Causes of Hyperglycemia

A number of conditions or factors can contribute to hyperglycemia, including:

  • Forget your insulin or oral glucose-lowering medicine
  • Having an infection
  • Experiencing high levels of stress
  • Eating more carbohydrates
  • Less physically active than usual

Hyperglycemia Symptoms

Early symptoms of hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose (sugar), may serve as a warning even before you test your glucose level. Typical symptoms may include:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Sugar in your urine
  • Headache
  • blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • sores that won’t heal
  • Headache

Later Symptoms

If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause ketoacidosis. Signs and symptoms include-

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fruity-smelling breath
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness
  • Dry mouth
  • Confusion
  • Abdominal pain
  • Coma

Hyperglycemia Diagnosis

  • Random blood glucose: Normal values are generally between 70 and 125 mg/dL.
  • Fasting blood glucose: Normal fasting blood glucose levels are less than 100 mg/dL. Levels within 100 mg/dL up to 125 mg/dL suggest prediabetes, levels of 126 mg/dL or above are diagnostic of diabetes.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test: This test is most commonly used to diagnose gestational diabetes.
  • Glycohemoglobin A1c(HbA1C): Measurement of glucose that is bound to red blood cells and provides an indication of blood sugar levels over the past 2 to 3 months.

Treatment and Prevention of Hyperglycemia

An important part of controlling your diabetes is monitoring your blood glucose level regularly. Prevention of hyperglycemia for people with a diabetes is a concern of good self-monitoring and management of blood glucose levels, including adherence to insulin regimes if necessary.

A physician may need to evaluate the treatment plan for a diabetes patient who becomes hyperglycemic and practice one of the following actions-

  • Raise the insulin dose
  • Medication Adjustment
  • Recommend more exercise
  • Recommend dietary changes
  • Recommend closer glucose monitoring

Hyperglycemia Complication

Short term Complication 

Blood glucose levels rise dangerously high - this can lead to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome.

Longer term Complication 

Blood glucose levels stay high for extended periods of time - this can lead to the development of organ damage occurring which can lead to-

  • Neuropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Kidney Failure
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Foot Problems(Diabetic Foot)
  • Skin Problems(Bacterial and Fungal Infections)