Hepatitis B: Causes,Symptom,Prevention & Treatment

Hepatitis B:
Hepatitis B is a viral infection, that causes liver disease and inflammation of the liver. Viruses can cause sickness. Inflammation can cause organs to not work properly & can cause both acute and chronic disease.

 

Hepatitis B Symptoms:

  • General aches and pains
  • Reduced appetite
  • Feeling and being sick
  • Fever
  • Diarrhoea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Yellowing of skin and eyes (jaundice)

These symptoms may usually pass within one to three months (acute hepatitis B), although the infection can last for six months or more (chronic hepatitis B).

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The risk for Chronic Hepatitis B & Prevention

The infection becomes chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected. Children less than 6 years of age are the most likely to develop chronic infections.

Preventing Hepatitis B

A vaccine against hepatitis B is available for people at high risk of the infection.
This includes:
Babies born to infected mothers
Close family and sexual partners of someone with hepatitis B
People traveling where hepatitis B is widespread, such as sub-Saharan Africa, Islands Islands, and the east and southeast Asia
Men who have sex with men
People who change their sexual partner frequently
The hepatitis B vaccine isn't a part of the routine vaccination schedule and sometimes you may pay for it.

Hepatitis B Diagnosis

Laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis is essential, agents.It is not possible, on clinical grounds, to differentiate hepatitis B from hepatitis caused by other agents. A number of tests(blood) are available to diagnose and monitor people with hepatitis B. A number of tests can be used to distinguish acute and chronic infections.

Laboratory diagnosis focuses on the detection of the hepatitis B surface antigen HBsAg.
Acute HBV is characterized by the presence of HBsAg and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to the core antigen, HBcAg. During the initial phase, patients are also seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). HBeAg is a marker of high levels of replication of the virus. The presence of HBeAg indicates that individually is highly contagious.
Chronic infection is characterized by the persistence of HBsAg for at least 6 months. Persistence of HBsAg is a principal marker of risk for developing the chronic disease of the liver and liver cancer later in life.

Treatment of Hepatitis B

No specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids which lost from vomiting and diarrhea.

Chronic hepatitis B treated with oral antiviral agents. Treatment slows the progression of cirrhosis, reduce the incidence of the liver cancer and improve long-term survival.
Medicines given by shots include:

  • Peginterferon
  • Interferon
  • Medicines are taken by mouth include
  • Adefovir
  • Lamivudine
  • Entecavir
  • Telbivudine
  • Tenofovir

The length of treatment depends on the condition. Talk with your physicians before taking other prescription medicines and over-the-counter medicines.

Liver Transplant

A liver transplant may necessary if chronic hepatitis B causes severe liver damage that can lead to liver failure. Symptoms of severe liver damage include:

  • Generalized itching
  • Swollen stomach or ankles
  • A longer than usual amount of time for bleeding to stop
  • Spiderlike blood vessels, called spider angiomas, that develop on the skin
  • Easy bruising

A team of surgeons who specialize in surgery—performs a liver transplant in a hospital. You will learn how to take care of yourself and about the medicines, after you go home, you’ll need to take to protect your new liver. Medicines that taken after liver transplant can prevent hepatitis B from coming back.